Generally, the plate of the marine acid battery adopts the grid type made of lead alloy, and the active material is pressed into the grid. The active material of the positive plate is lead dioxide (Pb02) The active material of the negative plate is spongy pure lead. In order to increase the capacity, the positive and negative plates of the battery are made into many pieces, which are connected in parallel and connected into two groups to form the positive and negative electrodes of the battery.
The negative plate of the battery is always one more than the positive plate. Each positive plate is sandwiched between the two negative plates, so that both sides of the positive plate undergo a chemical reaction, and the same expansion and contraction occur, reducing the chance of plate bending, thereby extending the electrode. Board life. The purpose of the separator is to insulate the positive and negative plates of the battery from each other, and can be made of wood, hard rubber, plastic, etc. In order for the electrolyte to circulate freely, the structure of the separator should be porous, but the active materials that fall off cannot pass through the separator and contact the adjacent electrode plates.
Alkaline batteries are divided into iron-nickel batteries, cadmium-nickel batteries, silver-zinc batteries and other series due to the different materials of the active materials of the plates. Cadmium-nickel batteries are mainly used on board.
The positive electrode of a nickel-cadmium battery is composed of nickel oxide powder and graphite powder. Graphite is mainly used to enhance conductivity and does not participate in chemical reactions. The negative electrode is composed of cadmium oxide powder and iron oxide powder. The purpose of adding iron oxide powder is to make the cadmium oxide powder have higher diffusibility, prevent agglomeration, and enhance the capacity of the electrode plate. These active materials on the positive and negative electrodes are respectively wrapped in perforated steel strips, and formed into positive and negative plates after compression molding. The positive and negative plates are separated by alkali-resistant hard rubber insulating rods. In order to drain and fill the electrolyte, there is a liquid injection port on the outer cover of the battery, and the liquid injection port is screwed with a closed gas plug. No electrolyte flows out.
The correct maintenance, maintenance and use of battery charging and discharging, electrolyte preparation, and battery measurement and judgment are important tasks for ship engine room management personnel.
The voltage of a single cell of an acid battery is about 2V. The internal resistance of an acid battery is small and is suitable for high current discharge. Therefore, an acid battery should be used when it is used as a diesel engine starting power source. The voltage of a single alkaline storage battery is generally 1.25V.
Alkaline batteries have the characteristics of small size, high mechanical strength, stable working voltage, long service life, etc., so they are increasingly widely used on ocean-going ships.