In 1910, Edison said that in the next 15 years, electric cars will use more electricity than electric lights. Edison was also committed to the research of electric vehicle batteries at that time, hoping to achieve higher power generation efficiency. Now, Edison’s prediction has long been proved to be inaccurate, and after a hundred years of development, the battery is still the bottleneck that electric vehicles have always been unable to cross.
According to ConsumerReport.org’s 2012 survey of car brands, 77% of respondents are concerned about the limited range of electric vehicles, and 42% are concerned about safety issues during charging. These issues are all related to The “heart” of electric vehicles-the battery has connections. Although after a long period of development, the battery technology has been several times higher than the original efficiency, but there is still no way to meet the demand for higher energy density of electric vehicles.
Two major battery skills encounter bottlenecks
In pure electric vehicles, two types of batteries are primarily used, namely hydrogen fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries.
Fuel cells are now in a dilemma in the market. Associate Professor Zhao Jiyang from the Institute of Materials Science and Technology of National Taiwan University pointed out that the key lies in the high cost of platinum catalysts and the constrained operating temperature of the proton conductive membrane at low temperatures (<80C), resulting in poor battery performance. , Fuel storage space is too large and hydrogen safety concerns and other three major issues, which restrict the deployment of fuel cells.
After failing to find a breakthrough point for the fuel cell, everyone looked back at the lithium-ion battery. Compared with other types of batteries, lithium-ion batteries have a higher volumetric energy density. With the rapid popularity of behavioral devices such as laptops, smart phones, and tablets, lithium-ion batteries have become an indispensable source of electricity in life, and even It was also the first choice for electric vehicle batteries at that time.
However, with the widespread use of lithium-ion batteries, endurance and driving power have become the biggest problems in the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Electric vehicles and 3C products consume too much power, and lithium-ion batteries must have higher capacity and efficiency to meet the needs of electric vehicles. Zhao Jiyang indicated that lithium-ion batteries have inherent material constraints, and the growth space for their energy density is very limited. Even if the theoretical maximum energy density is achieved, it is still difficult to meet the needs of electric vehicles in terms of endurance.