There are two types of ship batteries, one is for starting, which needs to be left and right. The second is for power on board. Generally, maintenance-free batteries or valve-regulated batteries are used. The capacity should be configured according to your needs.
Marine battery charging and discharging method
Marine batteries are battery packs, which have the same voltage as truck batteries, and have large and small capacities. Charge and discharge can be discharged through dummy load, the discharge current is half of the battery capacity, the discharge voltage is cut off, and then use the battery charger to charge, the charging current is 1/7 of the battery capacity, and the charging voltage is full and cut off.
What are the classification and basic common sense of batteries? What are the characteristics of marine batteries?
Classification of batteries:
Commonly used batteries include lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, iron-nickel batteries, metal oxide batteries, zinc-silver batteries, zinc-nickel batteries, nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium-ion batteries, etc.
①The negative electrode of lead-acid battery is lead, the positive electrode is lead dioxide, and the electrolyte is sulfuric acid. There are mainly starting type, fixed type, traction type, power type and portable type, most of which are open or acid-proof type, and a small amount is gel electrolyte battery. In recent years, sealed lead-acid and other types of battery products have replaced the original lead-acid batteries in many fields. Lead-acid batteries are inexpensive, suitable for low-temperature high-rate discharge, and are widely used. However, due to the low specific energy of lead-acid batteries, the production process is toxic and pollutes the environment, which affects the scope of its use.
②The negative electrode of the nickel-cadmium battery is cadmium, the positive electrode is nickel oxide, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. Common shapes are square, button and cylindrical, with three structures of opening, sealing and full sealing. According to the manufacturing method of the pole plate, it is divided into the pole plate box type, the sintering type, the pressing type and the pulling type. Nickel-cadmium batteries have the characteristics of high discharge rate, good low temperature performance and long cycle life.
③ The metal hydride nickel battery is a new product developed in the 1980s. The negative electrode is hydrogen-absorbing rare earth alloy, the positive electrode is nickel oxide, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide aqueous solution. It is 1.5-2 times larger than the nickel-cadmium battery. It can be quickly charged, has excellent high-rate discharge performance and low-temperature discharge performance, is cheap, and has no pollution. It is called a green battery.
④ The negative electrode of the iron-nickel battery is iron powder, the positive electrode is nickel oxide, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide aqueous solution. It has the characteristics of firm structure, durability, long service life, low specific energy, and is mostly used in the power supply of mine transport vehicles.
⑤ The negative electrode of zinc-silver battery is zinc, the positive electrode is silver oxide, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide aqueous solution.
⑥ The negative electrode of zinc-nickel battery is zinc, the positive electrode is nickel oxide, and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide aqueous solution, which has high specific energy, low price, but short life. In recent years, the cycle life of zinc-nickel battery has been greatly improved. The improved cycle life will be more widely used.
⑦ The negative electrode of lithium ion battery is carbon (graphite), the positive electrode is lithium cobalt oxide, using organic electrolyte, with high voltage, high specific energy, excellent cycle life, safe and pollution-free, called green power.
The marine environmental technical conditions that marine batteries must meet include the following:
(1) Adapt to vibration and shock. Vibration can loosen the fixed or connected parts of electrical equipment and cause structural damage or failure of the components. Therefore, there must be anti-loosening measures, vibration damping or vibration isolation measures, and a solid mechanical structure that is resistant to vibration and shock.
(2) Adapt to tilt and sway. Continued tilting and swaying disrupts the balance of forces in the normal resting position, creating additional forces on moving parts, resulting in equipment failure or damage.
(3) Adapt to the ambient temperature. Ambient temperature has a significant impact on the performance and service life of electrical equipment. Ambient temperature includes air temperature and sea water temperature.
(4) Adapt to the environment of humidity, salt spray, oil mist and mold. Moisture, salt mist, oil mist and mildew in the ambient air degrade the insulating properties of electrical equipment insulation materials and cause rust and corrosion of metal parts. The moist salt spray forms a moist leakage film on the surface of the insulating material, and the mold secretes organic acids under the humid and hot conditions, which aggravates the surface moisture. The adhesion of oil mist and dust to the surface increases the leakage of the surface, and hinders heat dissipation and increases the temperature. Moist water molecules penetrate into the cracks and capillaries of the insulating material, increasing the leakage current and causing the insulation resistance to drop. Damage to many electrical equipment is often caused by thermal breakdown of insulating materials. As the temperature exceeds a certain limit, the aging of the insulating material will be accelerated and the insulating properties will be lost. Therefore, marine cables, wires, windings, etc. should use insulation materials with higher heat resistance grades that are resistant to moisture, salt spray, and mildew, and materials with good flame retardancy, good mechanical strength and corrosion resistance.
(5) Adapt to changes in ship grid voltage and frequency. The ship power system is an independent limited grid. Both voltage and frequency are affected by load changes, so the range of voltage and frequency changes is specified, and it must be able to work effectively within this range.
(6) Protection requirements. In order to avoid failure or damage of electrical equipment due to the intrusion of external solid and liquid foreign objects, thereby causing fire hazards, general electrical equipment should be provided with protective enclosures.