1. The battery is a kind of battery. Its function is to store limited electrical energy and use it in a suitable place. It works by converting chemical energy into electrical energy. It uses a lead plate filled with spongy lead as the negative electrode, a lead plate filled with lead dioxide as the positive electrode, and dilute sulfuric acid with a specific gravity of 1.285 as the electrolyte. When charging, electrical energy is converted into chemical energy, and when discharging, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. When the battery is discharging, the most plate is used as the negative electrode, and the oxidation reaction occurs, which is oxidized to lead sulfate; the lead dioxide is the positive electrode, which undergoes a reduction reaction and is reduced to lead sulfate. Lead-acid batteries are batteries that can be repeatedly charged and discharged, and are called secondary batteries. The electricity is 2v, usually three lead-acid battery cells are connected in series to form a battery pack with a shell together, and the voltage is 6V. The combination of 6 lead-acid battery units is the 12V battery we use every day. Lead-acid batteries should be supplemented with standard electrolytes after a period of use.
2. Batteries are often used by ships as the starting power source for emergency generators and lifeboats; they are used as backup power sources for charging and discharging boards, main switchboards, host remote control and engine room monitoring and alarm systems, or UPS power boxes and control systems such as fire alarms. The use of equipment often occurs in emergency situations, and it is very necessary for daily maintenance to keep the equipment in a usable state at any time.
3. The vast majority of marine power storage is lead-acid battery, which is the working principle of the battery mentioned in the first paragraph. It can be divided into flooded and valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. The flooded battery needs to be filled with standard electrolyte in daily maintenance, while the valve-controlled type does not need to be filled with electrolyte, which is what we often call the free battery. Maintain the battery. This kind of battery must be used in the control box and UPS power supply box. Structurally, it can be divided into monomer type and combination type. Generally, lead-acid batteries whose monomer is 2V are used on ships for emergency charging and discharging boards to provide automation systems and emergency lighting power. This kind of single battery has the characteristics of long life and large capacity, but the cost is high.
3. Battery parameters that electricians need to know in daily maintenance:
There are many parameters related to the battery, here is only a brief introduction related to our daily management.
(1) The capacity of the battery: Usually the capacity of the equipment will be expressed in KW or KW.H, but the battery is not like this. In most countries, it is expressed in AH-Ah. His meaning is; with a ten-hour discharge rate as a standard, for example, a battery with a capacity of 90AH, based on 10 hours, can theoretically provide a load current of 9 amps for 10 consecutive hours. This is only a theoretical value. Battery performance and other factors also have a lot to do.
(2) Discharge termination voltage: During the discharge process of the battery, the termination voltage will change greatly under different discharge rates and temperatures. A large discharge current can allow a lower value of discharge termination voltage, while a small current discharge requires a higher termination voltage. value, the temperature drops, the battery capacity decreases, and the termination voltage should increase accordingly. In actual management, 85% of the rated voltage of the battery is used as the final discharge voltage. If the over-discharge continues, the internal resistance of the battery system will increase significantly, which will seriously shorten the battery life.
(3) Service life: Every time the battery is charged and discharged, it is called a charge and discharge cycle. The number of charge and discharge cycles that the battery can perform while maintaining a certain output capacity is called the service life of the yellow battery. It is often based on the time used by the battery to judge whether the battery life is over, which is not correct. The battery should be confirmed from various factors such as battery capacity change and termination voltage when discharging. Even a battery that has not been in use for a long time will be scrapped if it is not properly maintained and used correctly.
(4) Floating charging and equalizing charging (also called strong charging)
Floating charging is that the battery pack is connected in parallel with the charger output and the load for a long time. It can be used at the same time as a backup power supply at any time. The floating charging voltage of a 24V battery pack in series is generally adjusted between 26.4V-26.8V. For example: charging and discharging board Battery packs, emergency generator battery packs, some ships respond to emergency generator batteries that discharge very quickly, and the voltage may drop to 22V or even 20V in two or three days, and the battery pack needs to be replaced. Turn it off, so that the power supply of the control box of the emergency generator can only be provided by the battery, which means that the user does not know the necessary and correct charging method. Balanced charging is also called real electricity. The balanced charging voltage of 24V battery packs in series is generally about 28.2V: the so-called balanced charging is the charging that balances the characteristics of the battery. In order to avoid the deterioration of the unbalanced trend, it is necessary to increase the charging voltage of the battery pack and activate the charging of the battery. The concept of equalization charging is proposed in the sale of flooded acid batteries. At present, most of the run-controlled batteries clearly state that “there is no acid layer in the battery, so there is no need for equalization charging”. Equalizing charging will affect the valve control. damage to the battery. For flooded lead-acid batteries, the specific gravity of the electrolyte should be measured during the equalizing charging process and the electrolyte level should be adjusted as necessary. The equalizing charging should be attended by a special person to control the charging time and prevent overcharging.