(1) The standard specification for marine hydrogen fuel cells is not yet perfect
Although there are many cases of actual ship applications in various countries, the International Maritime Organization has not yet formulated industry guidelines for hydrogen fuel cell powered ships. The “Guidelines for Alternative Fuels for Marine Applications” (2017) issued by China Classification Society (CCS) provides guidance and regulations on the use of hydrogen fuel cells, but there are many imperfections, such as the use of marine fuel cells as the main power source and marine fuel cells. Relevant requirements such as product certification have not yet been clarified. It is urgent to complete the technical standards of design, manufacturing and inspection through special project research to fill the gap in my country’s regulations in the field of hydrogen fuel-powered ships.
(2) Insufficient research on marine hydrogen fuel cell technology
The relevant research on marine hydrogen fuel cells in my country is mainly concentrated in universities and some scientific research institutes, and there is a lack of engineering application research. At present, fuel cell modules and fuel cell power systems are mainly automotive products, and there are huge differences between ships and vehicles in terms of working environment and operating conditions, especially in terms of safety. Promote the application process of hydrogen fuel ship engineering.
(3) There is an urgent need for breakthroughs in marine hydrogen storage and refueling technology
Marine hydrogen storage and refueling is one of the main bottlenecks restricting the development of hydrogen fuel cells. At present, hydrogen storage and refueling technology has been initially industrialized in the field of vehicle fuel cells, but ships have the characteristics of long endurance, large hydrogen consumption, complex environmental factors, and high safety requirements. Mature. In addition, due to the many restrictions on fuel supply, problems such as difficulty in site selection and approval for bunkering facilities need to be overcome urgently.
From the perspective of hydrogen storage, hydrogen can be stored in gaseous, liquid and solid states. In order to meet the needs of ships, it is necessary to find a balance between hydrogen storage density, safety and cost. The performance of hydrogen storage technology is researched, and there is no precedent for domestic marine hydrogen fueling. At present, the tanker-type mobile filling method adopted abroad is not conducive to safety supervision and other factors due to the large randomness of filling operation. The relevant domestic regulations have prohibited the use of mobile filling. Therefore, it is necessary to study the marine hydrogen fueling technology to solve the technical problems of marine hydrogen fueling in my country, and it is necessary to plan to establish and reasonably arrange hydrogen fueling stations on the shore.
(4) The safety and management technology of hydrogen fuel cell powered ships is lagging behind
The hydrogen fuel cell power system has changed the traditional concept of marine internal combustion engine propulsion, and its feasibility, reliability and safety need to be further verified. Hydrogen is flammable and explosive, and hydrogen fuel is on board.
It will have a greater impact on maritime business such as ship safety management, crew training, emergency protection and handling, and dangerous goods supervision. At present, the relevant management measures such as crew training requirements, operating procedures, and emergency plans have not yet been issued. In order to promote the commercial application of zero-emission fuel cells on Chinese ships and fill the gap in the application field of fuel cell ships in my country, it is necessary to study the management technology of hydrogen fuel cell powered ships and jointly promote the development of green shipping.