What are the hazards of used lithium-ion batteries?
Lithium-ion batteries are not harmful to the human body and the environment during normal use. However, if the discarded lithium-ion batteries are not properly resolved, they will cause harm to the environment, and then affect the surrounding organisms and human bodies through the environment. This is mainly because chemical substances such as lithium hexafluorophosphate and polypropylene diethylene (alcohol) contained in lithium batteries can cause organic pollution to the environment. In addition, heavy metal elements such as cobalt contained in it will also cause harm to the environment.
For example, in the solution of waste lithium-ion batteries, it must first be pre-solved, including discharge, dismantling, crushing, and sorting; the plastic and iron shells after dismantling can be recycled; and then the electrode materials are subjected to alkaline leaching, Acid leaching, a variety of procedures followed by extraction.
Lithium batteries contain a variety of toxic substances, which are highly corrosive and polluting. In addition, waste lithium ion battery electrolyte contains extremely toxic, flammable, explosive, and corrosive electrolytes and organic solvents. If discarded or leaked arbitrarily, it will cause pollution and damage to the atmosphere, water, and soil. In addition, electrolyte leakage and excessively high temperature will cause battery explosion and fire hazards, which directly threaten people’s lives and property.
In addition, a series of pollutants will be generated in the process of rupture sorting and high-temperature pyrolysis of waste lithium-ion batteries, such as electrolyte analysis, plastic film pyrolysis, rupture dust, waste residues, etc., these pollutants not only It causes serious pollution to the atmosphere and water body and is severely corrosive to the equipment. At the same time, the various acid-base extractants, extractants, and active additives that need to be added during the process not only increase the cost of the recovery process, but also cause waste of resources and energy. Consumption increased, and a large amount of waste water, waste gas, waste residue, waste additives, etc. increased secondary pollution.
The hazards of used batteries
The hazards of used batteries are mainly concentrated on the small amounts of heavy metals contained in them, such as lead, mercury, and cadmium. These toxic substances enter the human body through various ways, long-term accumulation is difficult to eliminate, damage the nervous system, hematopoietic function and bones, and can even cause cancer.
1. Mercury (Hg) has distinct neurotoxicity, and also has adverse effects on the endocrine system, immune system, etc., which can cause rapid pulse, muscle tremor, oral and digestive system diseases;
2. Cadmium (Cd) element enters the human body through various channels, and long-term accumulation is difficult to eliminate, damages the nervous system, hematopoietic function and bones, and can even cause cancer;
3. Lead (Pb) can cause neurasthenia, numbness of hands and feet, indigestion, abdominal cramps, blood poisoning and other diseases; manganese can harm the nervous system.
How harmful are the used lead-acid batteries?
Harmful substances in the processing of lead-acid batteries include lead, sulfuric acid, carbon black, sulfur, and pitch. Among them, the people exposed to lead and sulfuric acid are the most, and these two substances are also very harmful to operators. my country has now included lead poisoning, carbon black pneumoconiosis, and tooth erosion on the list of statutory occupational diseases.