1. The working principle and advantages of lithium-ion batteries
Compared with lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries have the following characteristics:
Lithium-ion battery has high energy density, good rate performance, long cycle life, and maintenance-free. It is one of the more ideal submarine power lithium-ion batteries. As a ship’s backup battery, it can meet the needs of weight reduction and maintenance-free. At the same time, with the development of ships in the direction of all-electric propulsion, high-energy electromagnetic weapons have an urgent need for high-power power supply technology. The high-power characteristics of lithium-ion batteries can meet the development needs of high-energy electromagnetic weapons and have huge application prospects.
2. The application status of lithium-ion batteries in the field of ships
(1) Current status of foreign applications:
Foreign lithium-ion batteries have been practically used in civil electric ships and special submarines.
Lithium-ion batteries are important in the field of civil electric ships for hybrid and pure electric power electric ships. The total energy of the lithium-ion power lithium-ion battery system can reach hundreds of kilowatt-hours to megawatt-hours. The lithium-ion battery system used includes lithium iron phosphate. Ion batteries and ternary lithium-ion batteries. In order to meet the high energy requirements of the system, marine modules need to be designed in large-scale arrays and arranged in the form of shelves or battery cabinets. The voltage of the marine propulsion system is generally around 600-1000V, and the batteries are generally managed in clusters, and each battery cluster is connected in parallel, and the charge and discharge are controlled through the energy management system.
The application of lithium-ion battery systems in the field of special ships has been rapidly developed. In 2005, special single-boats adopted a 1.5kWh lithium-ion battery system. By 2006, it had been expanded to 15kWh. By 2011, lithium-ion batteries The application of the system on submarines and surface ships has exceeded 1000kWh.
(2) Current status of domestic applications:
Based on the large-scale application of domestic lithium-ion batteries in the field of battery vehicles and energy storage, the application of lithium-ion batteries in the field of electric ships has developed rapidly in recent years, and relevant regulations have been gradually established. Among them, the “Guidelines for the Inspection of Pure Battery Electric Ships” (2019) of my country Classification Society have been published. For safety reasons, lithium-ion batteries used in domestic electric ships are mainly lithium iron phosphate batteries. The Yangtze River “Junlu” electric ship is currently the first manned cruise ship on the Yangtze River, with a capacity of 300 passengers, a total battery system energy of 2.2MWh, and a single full charge for 8 hours. It is supplied by the 712th Research Institute of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation. The entire power system including the lithium-ion battery system. At the same time, lithium-ion batteries ushered in an explosive rise in the field of scenic cruises such as electric dumpers, cargo ships, and East Lake cruise ships. The 2,000-ton electric self-unloading ship built by Guangzhou Shipyard International Co., Ltd. is equipped with 26 tons of supercapacitors and ultra-high-power lithium-ion batteries. The battery capacity of the whole ship is about 2,400 kWh, and it can be charged in about 2 hours. It can endure 80 kilometers under full load; the 500-ton pure electric cargo ship reconstructed by Shanghai Ruihua Group is powered by a 160-kilowatt variable frequency motor and is equipped with 9 sets of lithium iron phosphate power lithium-ion battery packs and super capacitors for storage. Compatible with the standard shore power charging system, if 9 sets of energy storage batteries are charged at the same time, it can be fully charged in 2 to 3 hours, and it can sail for 50 hours with one full charge, and the range can reach 500 kilometers.
3. Application prospects of lithium-ion battery ships
After years of research and development and improvement, lead-acid batteries have basically reached the limit of their comprehensive electrochemical performance, and there is little room for improvement in the future, which can no longer meet the requirements of existing ships for power sources. Lithium-ion batteries have been used on a large scale in civil electric ships, and they have been used in the field of foreign submarines and other ships. It is one of the important